GHANAIAN LANGUAGES

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GHANAIAN LANGUAGES

GHANAIAN LANGUAGESOn Language And Development In Africa: The Case of GhanaThe official language is ENGLISH. A: GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED LANGUAGES1. ...

GHANAIAN LANGUAGES
On Language And Development In Africa: The Case of Ghana
The official language is ENGLISH.


A: GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED LANGUAGES
1.   AKAN (Ashanti, Fante, Akuapem, Akyem, Kwahu) (Written Twi)
2.   DAGAARE / WAALE Spoken in Upper Western Region (UWR)
3.   DANGBE Spoken in Greater Accra.(G/A)          
4.   DAGBANE Spoken in Northern Region (NR)
5.   EWE  "       Volta Region (VR)
6.   GA  "       Greater Accra Region (G/A)
7.   GONJA  "        Northern Region (NR)
8.   KASEM         "       Upper Eastern Region (UER)
9.   NZEMA         "       Western Region (WR)
B: NON-GOVERNMENT SPONSORED LANGUAGES
LANGUAGE  LOCATION


1.  ADELE  Spoken in VR (Tutukpene &Nkwanta)
2.  ANUFO/CHOKOSI Spoken in NR (Chereponi)
3.  BULI  Spoken in UER (Sandema)
4.  BIMOBA  Spoken in NR  (Bunkpurugu)
5.  BIRIFOR  Spoken in UWR & NR(Bilema & Danvar)
6.  BASSARI  Spoken in NR...
7.  CHUMBURUNG  Spoken in NR & VR (Ekumdipe)
8.  FRAFRA  Spoken in UER  (Bolgatanga)
9.  GIKYODE/AKYODE Spoken in VR   (Shiare)
11. HANGA  Spoken in NR   (
12. KONKOMBA  Spoken in NR   (Saboba)
13. KUSAAL  Spoken in UER  (Bawku)
14. KASEM  Spoken in UER  (Navrongo)
15. KOMA  Spoken in UER  (Yipabongo)
16. BUEM/ LELEM  Spoken in VR   (Jasikan & Bodada)
17. MAMPRULI  Spoken in NR   (NALERIGU)
18. MO/ DEG  Spoken in B/A&NR (New Longoro & Bole Dist.)
19. NAFAANRA  Spoken in B/A  (Banda Ahenkro)
20. NKONYA  Spoken in VR   (Akloba & Wurupong)
21. NTRUBO / DELO Spoken in VR   (Pusupu)
22. NAWURI  Spoken in NR   (Kitare)
23. SISAALA  Spoken in UWR  (Tumu)
24. TAMPULMA  Spoken in NR
25. VAGLA  Spoken in NR
26. WALI                Spoken in UWR


additions to be made
Guan speaking peolpe of Anum, Larteh, Adukrom, Dawu, Awukugua, Boso, Senya Bireku, Winneba. Bono speaking peolpe of Brong Ahafo, the Moo people, the Sehwi, Aowins, Krobos.


some more information


Dialect names
 FANTE (FANTI, MFANTSE), AKUAPEM (AKWAPEM TWI, AKUAPIM, AKWAPI),
    ASANTE (ASHANTE TWI, ASANTI, ACHANTI), AGONA, DANKYIRA, ASEN,
    AKYEM BOSOME, KWAWU, AHAFO


  Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano,
      Tano, Central, Akan
 Geographical region
      The Asante are south central, Ashanti Province. The Akuapem are
      southeast, in areas north of Accra. The Fante are south central,
      between Winneba, Takoradi, and Obuasi
 Population
      7,000,000 (1991 WA); 44% of the population (1990 WA); 1,380,000
      Asante Twi; 1,170,000 Fante; 230,000 Akuapem Twi (1978 SIL)
 Bible printings
      1871-1964
 New Testament printings
      1863-1981
 Printings of whole books of Bible
      1859-1957
 Remarks
      Dialects are largely inherently intelligible. The language of the
      Asante and Akuapem is called 'Twi'. An official literary language
      used for education through university, and in mother tongue
      authored literature. Roman alphabet
 Grammar typology
      SVO
 Total speakers
      7,000,000



DAGAARI, SOUTHERN (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      SOUTHERN DAGARI, DAGARI, DAGARA, DEGATI, DAGATI, DOGAARI
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari
 Geographical region
      Northwest corner
 Population
      423,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
 Printings of whole books of Bible
      1970
 Status
      Work in progress
 Remarks
      The people are called 'Dagaaba'. The language is spoken by all
      ages. Dagaari and Birifor are partially intelligible; Dagaari is
      more prominent politically and socially. It is an official
      literary language with Wali. It is distinct from Northern Dagaari
      in Burkina Faso
 Total  speakers
      423,200
 Religion
      70% traditional religion, 30% Muslim
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DAGBANI (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      DAGBANE, DAGOMBA, DAGBAMBA
 Dialect names
      NANUNI (NANUMBA)
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast
 Geographical region
      Northeast around Tamale and as far as Yendi.
 Also in Togo - settlers
 Population
      504,100 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
 New Testament printings
      1974-1983
 Printings of whole books of Bible
      1935-1955
 Remarks
      The people are called 'Dagbamba' or 'Dagomba', the language
      'Dagbani'. 90% lexical similarity with Talni, 89% with Kusal. An
      official literary language. 2% literate
 Grammar typology
      SVO
 Total speakers
      504,100 or more
 Religion
      Muslim 60%, traditional religion 39%, Christian 1%
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ENGLISH (Ghana)


 Genetic affiliation
      Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English
 Primary country of language
      United Kingdom
 Population
      Second language speakers: 1,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin);
      450,000,000 total (1991 WA)
 National language
      Yes


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


GA-ADANGME-KROBO


 Alternate language names
      AMINA, GAIN, ACCRA, ACRA
 Dialect names
      GA, ADANGME (ADANGBE, DANGME, DANGBE), KROBO
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme
 Geographical region
      Southeast, coast around Accra and inland. Also in Togo
 Population
      1,125,900 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 8% of the population
      (1990 WA)
 Remarks
      Ga and Adangme are separate official literary languages. Ga is
      the major language of Accr=A0, the capital
 Total speakers
      1,125,900
 Also in
      Togo
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 GURENNE


 Alternate language names
      FRAFRA, FAREFARE
 Dialect names
      GUDENI (GUDENNE, GURENNE, GURUNE), NAANI (NANKANI, NANKANSE),
      BOONI, TALNI, NABT
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast
 Geographical region
      Northeast around Bolgatanga (Bolgatanga District) and Navrongo
 Population
      526,300 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC) including 400,000 in the
      Upper East Region, perhaps 100,000 in various towns and cities in
      other regions (1988 SIL); 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991 Vanderaa);
      551,400 total
 Remarks
      They call themselves 'Gurunsi' and their language 'Farefare' or
      'Frafra'. The dialects are named after towns or localities. They
      consider Mampruli, Kusaal, and Dagaati to be sister languages.
      Nabt and Talni may be considered dialects of Mampruli. 5 major
      dialects and many minor ones. Taught at the University of Ghana.
      Dictionary in progress
 Total speakers
      551,400
 Religion
      90% traditional religion, 8% Christian, 2% Muslim
 Also in
      Burkina Faso
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 GONJA (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      NGBANYITO
 Dialect names
      GONJA, CHORUBA (CHOROBA), DUMPO (NDMPO)
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano,
       Tano, Guang, North Guang
  Geographical region
       West central, around the Upper Volta River
  Population
       138,500 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
  Remarks
       It is not intelligible with Chumburu. An official literary
       language
  Total speakers
       138,500
  Religion
       Muslim 98%, Christian 2%


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 GUA


  Alternate language names
       LARTEH-CHEREPON-ANUM-BOSO
  Dialect names
       OKERE (CHIRIPONG, CHIRIPON, CHEREPON), LATE (LETE, LARTEH), ANU
       (ANUM), BOSO
  Genetic affiliation
       Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano,
       Tano, Guang, Southern Guang
  Geographical region
       Anum: a pocket in Ewe area, Lete and Chiripon: a pocket between
       Ga and Twi areas
  Population
       156,200; 54,000 Cherepon; 36,000 Larteh; 30,000 Anum (1988
       GILLBT)
  Bilingual in
       Akan
  Status
       Needs survey
  Remarks
       Speakers of all dialects use Twi (Akan) as second language
  Religion
       Traditional religion
  Total speakers
       156,200
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 HAUSA (Ghana)


  Genetic affiliation
       Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1
  Primary country of language
       Nigeria
  Geographical region
       Mainly in Nigeria. Also in Niger, Cameroon, Togo, Benin, Chad,
       Sudan, Burkina Faso
  Population
       22,000,000 total (1991); 35,000,000 first and second language
       speakers total (1991 WA)
  Trade language
       Yes
  Remarks
       The trade language of northern Ghana
  Religion
       Muslim
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 KONKOMBA (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      LIKPAKPALN, KPANKPAM, KOM KOMBA
 Dialect names
      LICHABOOL-NALONG, LIMONKPEL, LINAFIEL, LIKOONLI, LIGBELN
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma
 Geographical region
      Northeast border area around Guerin, Yendi District, and into
      Togo. Many groups are scattered throughout north central Ghana
 Population
      220,000 in Ghana (1992 GILLBT); 50,100 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa
      CRC); 250,000 total
 Bilingual in
      Twi, Bassari, Hausa, English
 Remarks
      'Likpakpaln' is the self name for the language, 'Bikpakpaln' for
      the people. Patrilineal, patrilocal
 Subsistence type
      Agriculturalists: yams
 Total speakers
      250,000
 Religion
      60% traditional religion, 25% Muslim, 15% Christian
 Also in
      Togo


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 KUSAAL, EASTERN (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      KUSALE, KUSASI
 Dialect names
      ANGOLE, TOENDE
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast, Kusaal
 Geographical region
      Northeast corner, Bawku District
 Population
      400,000 (1992 GILLBT)
 Bilingual in
      Hausa
 Remarks
      Dialects are inherently intelligible. Distinct from Western
      Kusaal of Burkina Faso. Kusasi are the people, Kusaal is the
      language. 2% literate
 Total speakers
      400,000
 Religion
      Traditional religion 88%, Muslim 7.5%, Christian 4.5%
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 MAMPRULI (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      MAMPRULE, MANPELLE, NGMAMPERLI
 Dialect names
      NABT (NABNAM, NAMNAM, NABDAM, NABDE, NABIT, NABTE, NABDUG,
      NABRUG), TALNI (TALENSI, TALANSI, TALENE, TALLENSI)
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast
 Geographical region
      East and west of Gambaga. Talni is north central, around Tongo.
      Some in Togo
 Population
      226,800 Mamprusi (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
 Bilingual in
      Gurenne, Bimoba, Bissa
 Printings of whole books of Bible
      1943-1944
 Status
      Work in progress
 Remarks
      The people are called 'Mamprusi'. The speakers of Talni are
      'Talensi'. 50% intelligibility with Dagbani. Some people are
      bilingual in Gurenne, Bimoba, or Bissa
 Total speakers
      226,800 or more
 Religion
      60% traditional religion, 35% Muslim
 Also in
      Togo
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 MOORE (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      MOSSI, MORE, MOLE, MOSHI
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central,
      Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest
 Primary country of language
      Burkina Faso
 Geographical region
      Mainly in Burkina Faso. Also in Benin and Cte d'Ivoire
 Population
      4,700,000 total or more (1991); 19,700 in Togo (1991); 17,000 in
      Mali (1980)
 Remarks
      Have come to Ghana to work
 Religion
      Traditional religion, Muslim


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 NZEMA (Ghana)


 Alternate language names
      NZIMA, APPOLO
 Genetic affiliation
      Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano,
      Tano, Central, Bia, Southern
 Geographical region
      Southwest corner and into Cte d'Ivoire
 Population
      285,800 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 46,500 in Cte d'Ivoire
      (1991); 332,300 total
 Bilingual in
      Fante
 Remarks
      An official literary language
 Religion
      Traditional religion
 Total speakers
      332,300
 Also in
      Cote dIvoire
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ABRON


 606,600 in Ghana (1991); 114,600 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991);
 791,200 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)


ADAMOROBE SIGN LANGUAGE
      ADELE
           9,500 in Ghana (1991); 7,000 in Togo (1991); 16,500 total
           (1991 L. Vanderaa 1991)
      AHANTA
           97,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa 1991)
      AKAN
           7,000,000 (1991 WA); 44% of the population (1990 WA);
           1,380,000 Asante Twi; 1,170,000 Fante; 230,000 Akuapem Twi
           (1978 SIL)
      AKPAFU-LOLOBI
           16,100 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      AKPOSO
           5,400 in Ghana (1991); 94,900 in Togo (1991); 100,300 total
           (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      ANIMERE
           2,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      ANUFO
           30,700 in Ghana (1991); 41,800 in Togo (1991); 10,000 in
           Benin (1991); 82,500 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      ANYIN
           122,800 in Ghana (1991); 487,900 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991);
           610,700 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      AVATIME
           11,600 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      AWUTU
           100,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      BIMOBA
           73,700 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      BIRIFOR, GHANA
           63,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      BISSA
           119,100 in Ghana (1991 Vanderaa); 400,000 in Burkina Faso
           (1991 SIL); 50,000 emigrants in Cte d'Ivoire; 3,000 in Togo
           (1991 SIL); 572,100 total
      BOWIRI
           10,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      BULI
           100,000 in Ghana, including 80,000 in the Sandema District
           (1991 SIL); possibly 60,000 in Burkina Faso;
           160,000 total possibly
      CHAKALI
           4,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      CHALA
           2,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      CHUMBURUNG
           40,000 (1992 GILLBT), including 2,000 Yeji
      DAGAARI, SOUTHERN
           423,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      DAGBANI
           504,100 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      DEG
           17,200 in Ghana (1991); 1,100 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991);
           18,300 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      DELO
           5,100 in Ghana (1991); 5,000 in Togo (1991); 10,100 total
           (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      DWANG
           10,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      ENGLISH
           Second language speakers: 1,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and
           Voegelin); 450,000,000 total (1991 WA)
      EWE
           1,615,700 in Ghana (1991); 13% of the population (1990 WA);
           861,900 in Togo (1991); 2,477,600 total (1991 L. Vanderaa
           CRC); 3,000,000 including second language users (1991 WA)
      FULFULDE, MAASINA
           7,300 in Ghana (1991); 610,000 total
      GA-ADANGME-KROBO
           1,125,900 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 8% of the
           population (1990 WA)


GHANAIAN SIGN LANGUAGE
      GIKYODE
           10,000 speakers, 8,000 in the traditional area (1991 SIL)
      GONJA
           138,500 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      GUA
           156,200; 54,000 Cherepon; 36,000 Larteh; 30,000 Anum (1988
           GILLBT)
      GURENNE
           526,300 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC) including 400,000 in
           the Upper East Region, perhaps 100,000 in various towns and
           cities in other regions (1988 SIL); 25,100 in Burkina Faso
           (1991 Vanderaa); 551,400 total
      HANGA
           5,000 including 3,000 in the traditional area, 2,000
           elsewhere (1992 GILLBT)
      HAUSA
           22,000,000 total (1991); 35,000,000 first and second
           language speakers total (1991 WA)
      JWIRA-PEPESA
           17,500 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      KABIYE
           520,000 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 489,200 in Togo (1991
           Vanderaa); 1,200,000 including second language speakers
           (1991 UBS)
      KANTOSI
           2,000 possibly in Ghana, including 200 to 300 in Sandema
           District, possibly 1,000 in Kpaliwongo (1991 P. and N.
           Schaefer SIL)
      KASEM
           80,000 in Ghana (1990 SIL); 100,000 in Burkina Faso (1990
           SIL); 180,000 total (1990 SIL)
      KONKOMBA
           220,000 in Ghana (1992 GILLBT); 50,100 in Togo (1991 L.
           Vanderaa CRC); 250,000 total
      KONNI
           2,600 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      KPLANG
           7,700 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      KRACHE
           60,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      KULANGO, BONDOUKOU
           10,000 in Ghana (1991); 81,600 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991);
           91,600 total (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      KULANGO, BOUNA
           15,500 in Ghana (1991); 155,000 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991);
           170,500 total
      KUSAAL, EASTERN
           400,000 (1992 GILLBT)
      LELEMI
           30,570 (1988 SIL)
      LIGBI
           10,000in Ghana (1988 GILLBT); 4,000 in Cte d'Ivoire (1991
           L. Vanderaa CRC); 14,000 total
      LOGBA
           5,000 (1988 SIL)
      MAMPRULI
           226,800 Mamprusi (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      MOORE
           4,700,000 total or more (1991); 19,700 in Togo (1991);
           17,000 in Mali (1980)
      NAFAANRA
           45,000 (1992 GILLBT)
      NAWDM
           (112,000 in Togo)
      NAWURI
           13,900 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      NCHUMBULU
           1,300 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC
      NKONYA
           20,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      NTCHAM
           100,000 total (1992 SIL); 62,300 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa
           CRC)
      NYANGBO
           3,900 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      NZEMA
           285,800 in Ghana (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 46,500 in Cte
           d'Ivoire (1991); 332,300 total
      PASAALA
           50,000, with 25,000 Pasaali, 25,000 Gilbagala (1991 GILLBT)
      SAFALIBA
           4,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      SEHWI
           150,000 total (1988 GILLBT)
      SEKPELE
           15,000 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      SELE
           6,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      SISAALA, TUMULUNG
           121,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      SISAALA, WESTERN
           20,000 (1988 GILLBT)
      TAFI
           2,900 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      TAMPULMA
           35,000 (1992 GILLBT)
      TEM
           300,000 total (1987 SIL); 75,000 in Benin (1978 MARC);
           156,446 in Togo (1981 census)
      VAGLA
           10,000 in Ghana (1992 GILLBT); 37 in Cte d'Ivoire (1975
           census); 10,000 total
      WALI
           99,100 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)
      WASA
           175,000 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC)


 

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